Plasma Thruster with Diffusion Control Using Real-Time Simulations with Observer Structure and Ionising Radiation Caused by Electrodynamic Effects in the Accelerator Chamber
The script in this paper describes the use of propellant for plasma thrusters based on electrostatic accelerator. The generation and control of plasma is essential for the ion thrusters. The effects of generated plasma may be used for simulation with heavy ions also. Since of used neutralisation by most types the ion current with the electron current unites to one neutral mass current with very high speeds. The types of achieved energies about 10 keV by first ionisation are state of the art and about 15 keV of second ionisation are rare types also. The cathode has to be able to withstand this energy permanently because some of the ions hit with its grid. The beam of them differs from typical alpha radiation. The ionisation chamber with the accelerator generate high speed of the ions, which produce the ionising and electromagnetic radiation due acceleration. This process may be used for the radiation tests also.
With the proposed model it is possible to calculate the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic fields as well the spatial temperature distribution in real-time. For this purpose are radiation hardened electronic systems with microcontroller, operational amplifiers and FPGA required for control with an observer structure working with parallel real-time simulation based on state-space representation with an additional model for diffusion effects. With an observer system, the disturbances may be determined. This provides the estimation of the more precise systems states for the control and additionally the estimation of the disturbances that arise due to radiation effects.
The results have also shown that an observer system can be developed specifically for the real-time calculation of the radiation effects only. The possibilities are related to all discrete solutions of differential equation systems, linear time invariant, the partial differential equations and the high performance digital mathematic operations. The paper gives also an overview of the diffusion effects and their mechanisms. The consideration is made by proposed extension of the of the Fick's laws and Maxwell equations; the introduction of new vector sizes is performed also. The analytical results were good enough for calculation of fields with diffusion. Using the advanced control method of thrust, a control structure for the electric test system could be created.
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