VARIOUS METHODS TO DETECT BUILDINGS USING IMAGE AND LIDAR DATA
Four different variants of building detection are presented. Each variant has a different workflow and is capable of detecting buildings. The first variant of building detection is based on multispectral classification and DSM filtering. In the second variant, DSM blobs, mainly consisting of buildings and trees, are detected by subtraction of the DTM from the DSM. Then, trees are eliminated using NDVI data, derived from unsupervised ISODATA classification of the multispectral images, while small non-building objects are rejected based on size criteria. The third variant uses the planimetric density of raw LIDAR DTM data to detect the above-ground objects. The fourth variant is like the third one, but uses the vertical density of the raw LIDAR data (all points) to distinguish trees and buildings. To improve the results, a combination of the four variants using set intersections and unions is performed. The combination was empirical, with consideration of the datasets used in each variant and the advantages and disadvantages of each variant. In the evaluation, the combination of the four individual results yields 94% correct detections and an omission error of 12% for Zurich airport dataset.
 Brenner,C., (2005) "Building reconstruction from images and laser scannin" International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 6-3/4, 187-198.
 Haala, N., Kada, M., (2010) "An update on automatic 3D building reconstruction" ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 65-6,570-580.
 Lin, C., Huertas, A., Nevatia, R., (1995) "Detection of buildings from monocular images" Automatic Extraction of Man-Made Objects from Aerial and Space Images, pp. 125-134, Eds. Gruen, A., Kuebler, O., P. Agouris, P. , Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel.
 Katartzis, A., Sahli, H., Pizurica, V., Cornelis, J., (2001) "A Model-based approach to the automatic extraction of linear features from airborne images" IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39-9, 2073 -2079.
 Henricsson, O., E. Baltsavias, E., (1997) "3-D building reconstruction with ARUBA: a qualitative and quantitative evaluation" Automatic Extraction of Man-Made Objects from Aerial and Space Images (II), pp. 65-76, Eds. A. Gruen, A., O. Henricsson, O., Birkhauser Verlag. Basel.
 Baillard, C., Zisserman, A., (1999) "Automatic reconstruction of piecewise planar models from multiple views" Proc. of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Colorado, USA, June 23-25, 559-565.
 Baltsavias, E.P., (1999) "A comparison between photogrammetry and laser scanning" ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 54-2/3, 83-94.
 Rottensteiner, F., Trinder, J., Clode, S., Kubik, K., (2005) "Automated delineation of roof planes from LIDAR data" International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 36-3/W19, 221-226.
 Sohn, G., Dowman, I.J., (2007) " Data fusion of high-resolution satellite imagery and LiDAR data for automatic building extraction" ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 62-1, 43-63.
 Kim, C., Habib, A., (2009) "Object-based integration of photogrammetric and LiDAR data for automated generation of complex polyhedral building models" Sensors, 9-7, 5679-5701.
 Demir, N., (2013) "Combination of Airborne Laser and Image Data for Building Detection and 3D Roof Reconstruction" Doktora Tezi, ETH Zurich.
 Richards, J.A., (1993) "Remote sensing digital image analysis" Springer, New York.
 Schnabel, R., Wahl, R., Klein, R (2007) "Efficient RANSAC for point-cloud shape detection" Proc.of Computer Graphics Forum, 214-226.
The manuscript with title and authors is being submitted for publication in Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies. This article or a major portion of it was not published, not accepted and not submitted for publication elsewhere. If accepted for publication, I hereby grant the unlimited and all copyright privileges to Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies.
I declare that I am the responsible writer on behalf of all authors.